Tuesday, January 28, 2020

Principles and practice of Human Resource Management Essay Example for Free

Principles and practice of Human Resource Management Essay In 21st century, the organization which considers its employees as an asset rather than cost has competitive advantage. The term suggested for employees is human capital. It refers to productive potential of ones knowledge and actions. In todays knowledge economy, efficient management of human capital ensures success for the organization. This tells the importance of human resource management. It is about managing human capital in the same way as asset management or financial management. Actually human resource management acts as a medium of exchange between employees and organization. Employees offer knowledge, abilities, skills, efforts, time, motivation, commitment and performance to the organization in return for job security, empowerment, generous pay for performance, training, promotion and trustful relationship. Thus human resource management is considered as a matching process that is matching organizational goals with employees needs in order to satisfy both optimally. The more formal definition of human resource management is the activities undertaken by the organization to attract, develop and maintain an effective workforce within an organization. (Daft, 1982) Thus attracting an effective workforce for an organization, developing it to its potential and finally maintaining it are the three main goals of the human resource management. And all the strategies are developed by the human resource department for attaining these three goals and these strategies tend to be organizational wide in order to support the overall corporate strategy. The skills required for attracting the workforce includes human resource planning, job analysis, forecasting, recruiting and selecting; skills for developing the workforce includes training and performance appraisal; and skills for maintaining the workforce includes wages, salaries, benefits and termination. Organizations especially perform human resource management in order to tackle the issues related to human resource proactively rather than reactively. ( Price , 2007). Having developed the concept of human resource management, we will now talk about the different approaches taken by the organization for pursing HRM. Read more:Â  Managing The Human Resources The first approach is hard HRM developed by Michigan business school and the second one is soft HRM developed by Harvard business school. (Fombrun, Tichy and Devanna, 1984) Both approaches are opposite as they are based on different sets of assumptions. (Storey 1992) Soft HRM has humanistic edge in managing employees while hard HRM considers employees as resources which have to be managed in the same way as capital equipments and raw materials. That is hard HRM is bit more technical and mechanical in its approach which involves in obtaining as cheap labor as possible that should be fully exploited. Soft HRM advocates unitary perspective which means employees and organization needs and interest are coherent which leads to mutual goals, influence, respect, rewards and responsibility. The outcome is therefore employee commitment and organizational success (Walton 1985). On contrary, pluralist perspective sees differences in employee and organization goals as a cause for conflicts and problems. Management’s task is to induce the appropriate behavior in workers so that their actions accomplish the company’s goals, not their own. This paves the way for showing direction and coercion by management. This perspective underlies hard HRM. .( Price , 2007) Mc Gregor in 1960 gave Theory X and Theory Y about the nature of employees. Theory X depicted employees who dislike work and try to avoid it when they can. People have to be coerced to work and have to be closely directed and regulated thus leading to tight managerial control. On the other hand theory Y depicted employees who like to work and exercise self direction and self control if they are committed to the goals and objectives. In this case there is loose managerial control and managements function is to foster individual growth and development. Apparently soft HRM is associated with theory Y which emphasizes employees commitment through trust, open communication, training and development and autonomous work environment. This will produce employee behavior which is self directed and this is the main reason for organizations competitive advantage. Whereas hard HRM contingent to theory X, focuses on quantitative, calculative and strategic aspects of managing HR as for any other factor of production. The practices of hard HRM consist of strict performance appraisal, supervision and external control over individuals activities. Now we will examine how soft and hard HRM approaches lead to different kinds of activities and outcomes at different stages of human resource lifecycle. The first stage is of attracting the potential employees. This requires human resource planning by forecasting HR needs and matching the individuals with expected job vacancies. The soft HRM will seek to forecast needed employees in order to complete a work unit or finding the best mix of employees for the team in order to elicit commitment from team members by setting of good team norms and strong cohesiveness. Whereas hard HRM will look to minimize the need for additional employees and will try to reduce the head count. This will lead to incomplete work unit. The job vacancies will not be fully matched with potential employees, which will lead to incomplete work outcomes or delays in achieving goals deadlines. However hard HRM is best suited in condition of financial crisis and economic recession. In these conditions companies are incurring losses and they cannot afford hiring of new employees. Hard HRM is helpful in minimizing external hiring and shifting and relocating existing employees within organization. This will make existing employees loyal because they were not laid off by the organization when downsizing is the only option that remains during financial crisis. (Fombrun, 1984). The recruitment and selection is the most important process in hiring of employees. It requires analysis of both job applicants and job itself. We have to look for desired characteristics in applicants so that he must make a good match with particular job requirements. If his skills, education and experience are not adequate for the specific job then it will lead to frustration and confusion. The result will be poor performance, job dissatisfaction and high turnover. Both soft and hard HRM approach will provide realistic job preview and job description so that employees can judge their potential for a specific job. However soft HRM approach will be more insightful as it will look into the hidden personality traits, attitudes and beliefs of the applicants so that they can be better integrated into overall corporate culture, norms and values. Whereas hard HRM will only look to match the applicants skills with the technical specification of the job. Soft HRM give more attention to the human processes such as communication, sharing of knowledge, cohesiveness and trust among employees. Interviews, paper pencil test etc are the most common selection devices and are used by both approaches. However soft HRM approach has additional selection devices such as personality test, psychological test, case studies and different types of surveys. The second stage in HR lifecycle is development of effective workforce which includes training and performance appraisal as the two most important activities. Soft HRM approach will be more inclined towards training for individual advancement and career development. Soft HRM will go for various types of training techniques such as on the job training, class room training, computer assisted instructions, conferences and case discussion groups. Employees will be made to learn multiple skills so that they can be rotated among various jobs in order to reduce monotony and introduce variety. Hard HRM will see training as an expense. It will usually design job which leaves little room for showing discretion and creativity. The job is monotonous and set rules and procedures are there to perform the job. So training is limited to learning those specific job procedures which limits career advancement. This reduces employee motivation and cause job dissatisfaction and high turnover rate because of increase in monotony. The practice of hard HRM is most suitable in assembly line work. However it will fail in work demanding creativity and originality and whose environment is more unstable and uncertain, for example, film industry. While considering the activity of performance appraisal, hard HRM is more stringent in its appraisal process. The poor performance is mostly attributed to individuals lack of ability and no consideration is given to various external factors influencing the individuals performance. External factors are outside individual control and includes pathetic work environment, work place conflicts, distrust, no sharing of information and resources, bad relations and poor communication with top management. (Drucker , 1954 ) On the other hand soft HRM gives objective feedback on employees performance. It also uses the technique of 360 degree feedback that uses multiple raters and self rating to enhance the reliability and credibility of feedback in the eyes of employees. Multiple raters can include customers, co workers, supervisors and subordinates. Employee is also given a chance to explain his point of view and give explanation if his performance is not up to the standard. At the end of the appraisal top performances are also rewarded with bonuses, recognition and promotion. The feedback style of soft HRM is such that employees are motivated to improve their performance further. It enhances employees self efficacy by making clear role expectations and removing role conflicts and role ambiguity. This approach is therefore best suited for organizations whose culture encompasses total quality management. TQM stresses for customer satisfaction by providing better quality product or services through dedication to training, continuous improvement and teamwork. The third and last stage in HR life cycle is maintaining of workforce so that they continue to work for the organization over the long run. This stage consists of four activities such as rewards management, industrial relation, occupational health and safety and termination. In soft HRM approach rewards are such that it recognizes individual’s accomplishment as well as teamwork. Rewards are administered in such a way that it promotes collaboration and cooperation among employees so that they work as a unit for the overall goals of the organization. The focus is on creating the synergy so that different department of organization works coherently and in alignment of corporate strategy. Ivancevich, 2003). Soft HRM approach also gives rewards which increases intrinsic motivation of employees. Intrinsic motivation to work comes from the internal satisfaction and honor one feels when he completes some meaningful work which makes the difference for the organization. These types of rewards increase employees’ sense of meaningfulness, competence, progress and choice. Intrinsic rewards which increase intrinsic motivation are important for increasing employees’ commitment to organization’s goals and mission. The hard HRM has tight control over rewards. Apart from basic salary, less effort is made to recognize individual performance. However calculated yearly bonuses are given when year end profit target is achieved. In other words no effort is made in hard HRM’s reward system to increase employees’ commitment to work. The main problem is that hard HRM follows corporate strategy in rewarding employees and no analysis is done about employee’s needs and desires. Soft HRM is good enough as its rewards system makes a best fit between employees’ needs and rewards. Moreover the other organization dynamics which affects rewards system is employees’ perceived equity of rewards. If the distribution of rewards is not considered equitable by employees then motivating effects of rewards will vanish. There will be feeling of cognitive dissonance in employees and to remove this feeling, he will either alter his inputs to the work or will demand changes in rewards. The soft HRM approach dealing with human processes designs reward system to improve employees’ perceived equity while hard HRM fails to do so. According to Herzberg, working conditions, pay, good company policy and interpersonal relationships are called hygiene factors and their presence removes job dissatisfaction. The hygiene factors are well cared by soft HRM approach. The hard one fails to provide hygiene factors because its main objective is to accomplish a task in most economical terms as possible. It is only the soft HRM approach that has clear and functional policies and procedures about occupational health and safety. (Noe, 2003). Soft HRM approach looks to build long term relationship with employees. It opens all channels of communication such as upward, downward and lateral. Moreover grapevine and management by objective techniques are also used by managers to delve deeper into employees’ problems and requirements. Hard HRM only uses formal and hierarchical communication channel. This is also the cause for many communication breakdown and distortion. The most important feature of soft HRM is of mentoring and socialization which greatly helps in building cooperative and trustful corporate culture and environment.

Monday, January 20, 2020

African-American Street Gangs in Los Angeles :: Gangs Crime Essays

African-American Street Gangs in Los Angeles In Los Angeles and other urban areas in the United States, the formation of street gangs increased at a steady pace through 1996. The Bloods and the Crips, the most well-known gangs of Los Angeles, are predominately African American[1] and they have steadily increased in number since their beginnings in 1969. In addition, there are over 600 active Hispanic gangs in Los Angeles County with a growing Asian gang population numbering approximately 20,000 members. Surprisingly, little has been written about the historical significance of black gangs in Los Angeles (LA). Literature and firsthand interviews with Los Angeles residents seem to point to three significant periods relevant to the development of the contemporary black gangs. The first period, which followed WWII and significant black migrations from the South, is when the first major black clubs formed. After the Watts rebellion of 1965, the second period gave way to the civil rights period of Los Angeles where blacks, including those who where former club members who became politically active for the remainder of the 1960s. By the early 1970s black street gangs began to reemerge. By 1972, the Crips were firmly established and the Bloods were beginning to organize. This period saw the rise of LA’s newest gangs, which continued to grow during the 1970s, and later formed in several other cities throughout the United States by the 1990s. While black gangs do not make up the larges t or most active gang population in Los Angeles today, their influence on street gang culture nationally has been profound. In order to better understand the rise of these groups, I went into the original neighborhoods to document the history which led to these groups. There are 88 incorporated cities and dozens of other unincorporated places in Los Angeles County (LAC). In the process of conducting this research, I visited all of these places in an attempt to not just identify gangs active in Los Angeles, but to determine their territories. Through several weeks of field work and research conducted in 1996, I identified 274 black gangs in 17 cities and four unincorporated areas in LAC. Post WWII to 1965 The first major period of black gangs in Los Angeles began in the late 1940s and ended in 1965. There were black gangs in Los Angeles prior to this period, but they were small in numbers; little is known about the activity of these groups.

Sunday, January 12, 2020

How Does Walker’s Use of Imagery and Symbolism?

In â€Å"The Colour Purple,† Alice Walker uses symbolism, and imagery to affect the reader’s interpretation of the novel through very complex themes of religious influence, oppression and emotion developed from these literary devices. This has a profound influence on the reader’s interpretation of the novel as it suggests certain opinions and points of view to them as well as giving them deeper insight to the emotions of the protagonist In â€Å"The Colour Purple† a strong theme of religious influence and interpretation is developed through use of symbolism and imagery.The fact that the letters are initially addressed to God, an entity in whom the protagonist strongly believes, has a significant symbolic impact on the novel. When Celie’s mother asks where her child came from she says â€Å"Its God’s† when clearly, it is her father’s child. The elliptical choice of â€Å"God† as the father of the baby is symbolic, and show s that the power her Pa wields over her makes him a God-like figure to her. This is ironic the semantic field of the word â€Å"God† holds connotations of an all-powerful and infinitely benevolent entity.The irony of this is that whilst the true father of the baby, her â€Å"Pa†, holds a great deal of power over her, he is portrayed as anything but benevolent. If anything, he is more like Satan as he is seemingly the source of all the deplorable aspects of her life. This evokes a great deal of pathos from the reader and also antipathy towards her father. This clearly Illustrates for the reader who the protagonist and antagonists of the novel are Later in the novel, this symbolism is continued as the protagonist’s perception of God is explored through her dialogue with Shug Avery.Soon after discovering that her sister is still alive, she becomes frustrated and against the idea of praising God, exclaiming â€Å"What God do for me? † This is a typical reacti on of people who have suffered in life to the concept of God. This anger she feels towards God for letting her suffer so much is a manifestation of all the anger she feels towards all the people who have wronged her in life. This further manifests itself when she decides, â€Å"She don’t write God no more† as she blames him for giving her a hard life.She also decides that God is a man, something that is of extreme significance as Celie attributes all of her life’s troubles and problems to men, and their mistreatment of her. She confesses to Shug Avery that she sees God as â€Å"Big and old and tall and greybearded and white† This perception of God is a fairly common one, along with the â€Å"white robed† and â€Å"barefooted† idea. Then Shug outlines her perceptions of God, and church, ideas that are not so common. Her ideas are extremely interesting; she says she never found God in church, and any God she found she â€Å"brought in† with her.The effect this has on the reader forms very strong empathy with the protagonist, as the thoughts she is having are very relatable. It also makes the reader question their own perceptions of God, thus making this novel seem to be a very philosophical one. With Shug’s help, Celie comes to see that God isn’t a bearded white man, he is â€Å"Everything†, he is in nature, people, the sky and all that is good. This is most strongly illustrated in the final letter of the book which she addresses â€Å"Dear God. Dear stars, dear trees, dear sky, sear peoples.Dear everything. † The syntax of those sentences as a list illustrates further that she sees God in everything that is good and beautiful. This shows that she has come back to God and her perceptions have changed dramatically. This symbolises the end of a journey as Celie comes to accept God once more and it also symbolises that fact that she has moved on with her life and is finally happy. She†™s also This creates more empathy from the reader who feels joy for the protagonist as well as showing that she has overcome her hardships.Overall this idea of a journey creates a sense of this being a very biographical novel. The fact that it is in epistolary form makes the novel much more personal and relatable for the reader. When Celie leaves Mr. __ she finds her inner self and gains a lot more personality. At the beginning of the novel, she never mentions her emotions, just physical feelings. This is symbolic of the fact that in her oppression, she was just surviving rather than living. She was very much a shell, her body existed but her inner spirit was suppressed greatly.The first time emotions are brought in are when Celie discovers that her sister is still alive. Her break from oppression to become her own person is symbolised by the pants. The making of pants is theraputic for her, she claims she â€Å"aint been able to stop† after she started. This is the first t hing shes ever chosen to do herself so they are symbolic of her newfound independence. Also in that society, pants were considered to be a men’s item of clothing, so the wearing of pants by Celie and Shug is symbolic of their fight against sexism and the patriarchal society.The fact that she starts to make money from the pants furthers the idea of independence. The effect on the reader of this is it gives an idea of this being a very political novel and being about a struggle for freedom. The colour purple is a regal colour representative of affluence and the good things in life created by God for the people to enjoy. At the beginning of the beginning of the book, Celie has no sense of the colour purple, she has a terrible life in which she is just surviving rather than really living. The lack of emotion at the beginning clearly shows this.As a result, she doesn’t have the capacity to sense the colour purple, she cant appreciate the simple beauty of life and nature as her conditions are so oppressive that she cant see any good. Shug helps her to see the good in life when she shows Celie that God is in everything and telling her to â€Å"relax, go with everything that’s going and praise God by liking what you like. † This overall analysis of God and the form In which he exists prompts the reader to question their own view on God, especially the way in which society depicts him and his laws.

Saturday, January 4, 2020

Ban Advertisements On Tobacco Usage Essay - 903 Words

The Government of India sought to create a mechanism to ban Ads on Tobacco usage. In doing so, it raised ethical concerns and arguments from two different sides, those in favor of and against it. For instance, Suhel Seth, CEO of Equus Advertisement, made a strong differing statement such as â€Å"The ban does not have teeth. It is typical Knee-jerk reaction by any Government to create some kind of popularity for itself.† Mr. Seth thought the Government was not serious enough to endorse Tobacco Ads prohibition, but instead that the Government was using it to gain acceptance. On the other hand, companies such as ITC Ltd voluntarily withdrew its ads from events, regardless â€Å"the legal position of the subject.† They were accessible to â€Å"a constructive dialogue† that would lead to the development of a suitable legislation. I suggest summarizing both the arguments of those who are in support of, as well as of those who are opposed to ban Tobacco Ads, and the co nflicts of interest issues that pertain to the Government of India and lastly my own point of view of what I believe governments should do in regards to tobacco ads. 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